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The undersigned, on behalfof theentirestaff, would liketo askthesame indulgenceof thereader as Samuel Johnson requestedin his first English dictionary: To rememberthatalthoughmuchhasbeenleftout, much hasbeenincluded. Harrell Associate Professorof L i n g u i s t i ~ s Georgetown University Director, Arabic Research Program PREFACE The compilation of this dictionarywasbeguninthe summer of 1960 by Dr. Irving of the University of Minnesota, with the assistance of Munir Malaykaof Baghdad, Iraq. Irving wasnot abletoseethe diction- arythrough to itscompletion, and, for avarietyof technical reasons, themassof materialwhichhehadso conscientiously and diligently collectedhad largelyto be abandoned. t - voiceless dental stop, emphatic; noequivalent in c - voicedpharyngeal spirant;noequivalent in English, but same as Classical Arabic t. q-voiceless post-velarstop; noeq Uivalent in English. k - voiceless velarstop; similarto English asinkick. l-voiced alveo-dentallateral; unlikemost English but similarto1 asin million. h - voicelessglottal spirant; similarto Englishh... y- voicedhigh front unrounded semivowel; similar to English y as in yell. The re-editing and completion of the workwas undertakenby B. Clarity, formerlyof thelinguistics department of the Arabian-American Oil Company and now Professor at Beloit College, Beloit, Wisconsin. February, 1964 EDITORS' INTRODUCTION This dictionaryis based, informat, on the English-German sectionof the bilingual German and English Dictionaryof Everyday Usage*. g- voiced velarspirant; noequivalent in English, but similartosome occur- rencesof French r. Theshortvowels are asfollows: a- short low central vowel; the quality of this vowel varies with its en- vironment and is similarto the English asin father, ora soundbetween the vowelsof fatherandfought, or betandbat. o- shortmid backroundedvowel; similar tothe first partof thediphthongin English boat. ttiraf b- "to admit", ttimad "to trust", whereas free prep- ositional complements arerelegated to theillustrativesentencesfordemonstration. Anoun mayoccur in a verb entryeither before or afterthepreposition. - plural The editors wish to express their appreciationto Georgetown University for providing anacademichomeduring the compiling of thisdictionary, and, aboveall, to the authors of the National Defense Education Actanditsadministratorsin the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,whomadepossible forusitsunder- taking. The contributionof more junior research assistants, both Araband American, isalsonot to be under- estimated. Theirpainstaking assemblingand ordering of rawdata, often in manners requiring considerable creative intelligence, hasbeen the necessaryprerequisite for furtherprogress. x- voiceless velar spirant; no English equivalent but similar to ch as in German Bach. **AShort Reference Grammar of Iraqi Arabic, by Wallace M. Asageneral rule, theassimilationofa radical toapreceding orfollowing consonanthas not been shown. *German-English English-German Dictionaryof Everyday Usage, ed. Erwin (Insti- tute of Languages and Linguistics, Georgetown University, Arabic Series, 4). Thenotable ex- pectationis that partial assimilationas toemphasis(velarization) isshown. - - Englishhomonyms are treatedin thesamemainentry. The Arabicequivalent of an Englishentry isusuallyfollowedbyacontextualexample whichisdesignedto illustrate and define its semantic range or syntactic behavior, or both.
Although the contributingstaff members arenamedon the title page ofthe individual dictionaries, special mention must bemadeof Mr. His lexicographical experience, acquired in hiswork on the English version of Profes- sor Wehr's Arabisches Iforterbuchfur die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart ,* *Hans Wehr, ADi c tionary of Modern Wri tten Arabi c) ed. In most cases thebooks prepared by the Arabic Research Programarethe first of their kindin English, and in some cases the first in any language.
The preparation of them hasbeena rewarding experience. s - voicelessdental spirant;similarto English asinseen. s- voiceless palatal spirant;similarto Englishsh asinsheep. - voiceless dental spirant, emphatic; noequivalentin English.
It ishopedthat thepublic useof them will beequallyso. 0-voicelessinterdental spirant, emphatic; noeq Uivalent in English. n - voiced dental nasal;similar to English E- asin neat. Thesemivowels areasfollows: w- voiced high back rounded semivowel; similar to Englishas in way.
The secondtwo yearsof theresearchpro- gram, 1962-1964 (Contract number OE-2-14-029), call for the furtherproduction of Arabic - Englishdictionaries in eachof the three varietiesof Arabicmentioned above, as well as comprehensive basic coursesin the Moroccan and Iraqivarieties.
The eleven booksof thisseries, of whichthe present volume isone, are de- signed to serve aspracticaltools forthe increasing numberof Americanswhose livesbring theminto contact with the Arab world.