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The paper notes that this occurred during a period in which human population increased by 37%, the level of atmospheric CO2 increased by 9%, and the Earth “had two of the warmest decades in the instrumental record.”[245] [246] attributes this increased productivity to “higher temperatures, longer temperate growing seasons, more rainfall in some previously water-limited areas,” and more sunlight.One of these was a series of buoys, each containing thermometers located ten feet above the water and at one foot below the water.The study found that water temperatures increased on average by 0.23ºF (0.13ºC) per decade between 19, while air temperatures cooled by 0.02 to 0.09ºF (0.01 to 0.06ºC) per decade during the same period.[91] examined the locations of 1,007 of the 1,221 monitoring stations used to determine average surface temperature changes across the continental United States.* This graph is called the “hockey stick graph” because the curve looks like a hockey stick laid on its side (click on the footnote for a graphic illustration).[105] The red part of the curve represents modern instrument-measured surface temperatures, the blue represents proxy data, the black line is a smoothed average of the proxy data, and the gray represents the margin of error with 95% confidence.[106] [107] .[108] [109] Multiple versions of this graph appear in different sections of the IPCC report, including the “Scientific” section,[110] “Synthesis,”[111] and twice in the “Summary for Policymakers.”[112] * This graph has been the subject of disputes in scientific journals,[113] [114] congressional hearings,[115] [116] and legal proceedings including a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit.[117] [118] Just Facts presently does not have the resources to conclusively assess all the competing claims on this issue, but the facts we have verified are as follows: medieval warmth,” and shows the following graph of temperature changes for the Northern Hemisphere over the past 1,300 years.This graph, which is called a “spaghetti graph,” is constructed with data from 12 proxy studies spliced with instrument-measured surface temperatures (the dark black line): * The fifth IPCC report (2013) states that challenges persist in reconstructing temperatures before the time of the instrumental record “due to limitations of spatial sampling, uncertainties in individual proxy records and challenges associated with the statistical methods used to calibrate and integrate multi-proxy information.” This report contains the following spaghetti graphs of proxy studies spliced with instrument-measured surface temperatures (the black lines): * In 2009, an unknown individual(s) released more than 1,000 emails (many dealing with proxy studies) from the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit (CRU).

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