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Its origin is linked both with the political situation in Catholic Christendom, including the political and social situation in 11th-century Europe, the rise of a reform movement within the papacy, as well as the military and religious confrontation of Christianity and Islam in the East.
Christianity had been adopted throughout the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, but in the 7th to 8th centuries, the Umayyad Caliphate had conquered Syria, Egypt, and North Africa from the predominantly Christian Byzantine Empire, and Hispania from the Visigothic Kingdom.
During their conquests, the crusaders established the Latin Rite crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa.
This was contrary to the wishes of the Eastern Rite Byzantines, who wanted the land that the Muslims took from them returned, rather than occupied by Latin Catholics.
Between the years of 10, the Byzantine Greeks experienced the crusade as it arrived in Constantinople in three separate waves.
Pisa, Genoa, and the Principality of Catalonia began to battle various Muslim kingdoms for control of the Mediterranean Basin, exemplified by the Mahdia campaign and battles at Majorca and Sardinia.The random violence of the knightly class was regularly condemned by the church, and in response, it established the Peace and Truce of God to prohibit fighting on certain days of the year.At the same time, the reform-minded papacy came into conflict with the Holy Roman Emperors, resulting in the Investiture Controversy.After the retaking of Jerusalem, most of the crusaders returned home.This left the crusader kingdoms vulnerable to Muslim reconquest during the Second and Third Crusades.