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First, an Aramean camel-rider carving on display in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, dated to the 10th century BC, conflicts with the latest suggested 9th century BC domestication.The artifact was found at Tell el-Halaf in Mesopotamia by Max von Oppenheim, who had originally dated the piece to the early 3rd millennium BC.Although many claim there is a consensus within archaeological circles, in reality scholars debate exactly when the camel was first domesticated in the Near East—for any purpose.The theories range from as late as the 9th century BC to as early as the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC, depending on the availability of data, interpretation of data, and personal opinions, leaving a large range of years in dispute.subscribe to a date for the domestication of the camel between the end of the 12th century BC to sometime in the 9th century BC.As an answer to these ancient Bible texts that claim the Bronze Age use of domesticated camels, a common explanation offered is that later scribal substitution of "camel" for some other pack animal such as a donkey occurred.
Still, the general consensus by ancient Near Eastern scholars over the last several decades has been that camels were not domesticated in the area until the Iron Age.
Therefore, domesticated camels may have been in use in the Near East prior to the 12th century BC and the beginning of the Iron Age through trade, while the people of the Near East may soon have learned to domesticate their own local camels.
However, numerous discoveries have turned up in several areas of the Near East arguing for a much earlier domestication date.
This carving predates the theory of several scholars by at a least century, and forces a recalibration of their theory.
Moving past the 9th century BC theory and examining the viability of a 12th century BC theory, similar problems are discovered.